Many of the glaciers in continental Europe are found on mountain ranges: the Alps, the Great Caucasus range, the Scandinavian mountains, the Polar Urals and the Pyrenees. The glaciers in Iceland and Svalbard exist at lower altitudes because of their proximity to the North Pole.
The vast majority of glaciers in Europe are retreating. Those in the Alps have lost half of their volume since 1900, with clear acceleration since the 1980s. Glacier retreat in Europe is expected to continue.
2. Moussavi, M.S. et al. (2009). A new glacier inventory in Iran. Annals of Glaciology, 50, 93–103.
Glacier Du Baounet, France | Scott Conarroe (2015)
Sunrise shot of Glacier Du Baounet. In the Alps, the borders of Switzerland, Italy, Austria and France are based on the watershed. As global warming has shrunk the glaciers, the watershed has shifted. Thus, the alpine landscapes no longer conform to the borders established in the last century.
Esmarkbreen, Svalbard | Corey Arnold (2013)
The front wall of Esmarkbreen, a tidal glacier in the Norwegian archipelago of Svalbard, in the Arctic Ocean. The glacier was named after Professor Jens Esmark (1763–1839), a Danish-Norwegian pioneer in glacial geology, who was the first to present convincing evidence of glaciation in northern Europe.